New Ligand Exchange Series for Rapid Fermentation Monitoring
Shodex SUGAR series allow the separation of monosaccharides and disaccharides using aqueous eluent under ligand exchange and GFC modes. Basically, saccharides are eluted in order of decreasing molecular weight by GFC mode. The series provides base line stability and linearity over a wide range when quantifying samples, thus permitting the detection of refractive indexes with high sensitivity.
Ligand exchange employs ion interaction between metal ions (M+) which are the counter ions of the packing material, and hydroxyl (OH–) groups of the saccharides. Saccharides take the energetically stable chair form. In the figure above, two cases are illustrated. (a) Triplet: Three hydroxyl groups having Ax-Eq-Ax structure form a complex with the counter ion. Here, saccharides are strongly retained by the counter ion. (b) Pair: Two hydroxyl groups having Ax-Eq structure form a complex with the counter ion. Saccharides are not so strongly retained vs the triplet.
Depending on not only the structure of saccharides but also the type of counter ion, the intensity of interactions applied to the saccharides varies. And, the order of intensity is as follows:
Ag+ < Li+ < Na+ < Zn2+ < Ca2+ < Ba2+ < Pb2+
Most sugars involved in biomass/biofuel production can be separated within 10 minutes. This is ideal for QC monitoring of the fermentation process where time is crucial in the competitive energy market. Shodex now offers SUGAR Series Rapid Analysis Columns SP0810 8C, SH1011 8C & SC1011 8C in 8.0 x 100 mm dimensions.